Anemia is a condition that begins when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin.
Anemia is the most common blood disease. Hemoglobin is the main component of red blood cells and binds oxygen.
Hemoglobin (located inside the erythrocytes) usually transfers oxygen from the lungs to the tissue; anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in the organs.
Because all human cells require oxygen for life, various degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical outcomes.
If you have too less or abnormal red blood cells, or your hemoglobin is on a low level. The cells in your body will not get enough oxygen.
There are different types of anemia caused by various causes.
Anemia can be classified in various forms. According to the reasons, anemia is divided into three broad groups.
The three main groups of anemia include
- Excessive blood loss (acute, such as bleeding or chronic due to low volume loss)
- Extreme destruction of blood cells (hemolysis)
- Lack of red blood cells (ineffective hematopoiesis).
More than 400 varieties of anemia have been identified.
The most common symptom of all types of anemia:
- Difficulty concentrating
- Easy fatigue and loss of energy
- Pale skin
- Leg cramps
- Unusually rapid heartbeat, particularly with exercise
- Shortness of breath and headache, particularly with activity
Here are some forms of anemia that can have specific symptoms:
- Folic acid deficiency anemia: irritability, diarrhea, and a smooth tongue
- Aplastic anemia: increased temperature, various infections, and skin rashes
- Hemolytic anemia: jaundice, dark colored urine, increased temperature, and abdominal pains
- Sickle cell anemia: painful swelling of the feet and hands, fatigue, and jaundice
The most common type of anemia is an iron deficiency anemia. It is caused by a shortage of iron, most often through blood loss.
The clinical description of iron deficiency anemia depends on the level of iron deficiency. Patients with medium iron lack in the body are able to work and can only feel some symptoms during exercise.
The less the iron, the more precise the symptoms, and the more severe the patient’s condition.
Usually, the iron from the body of a healthy person is continuously excreted with sweat, urine, peeled cells of the covering tissues – skin and mucous membrane of the digestive canal.
The daily loss of iron is 1-2 mg.
In women of childbearing age, the iron loss is more prominent, which is associated with menstrual bleeding, iron loss during pregnancy, and breastfeeding.
To maintain the iron amount at the correct level, it is necessary to ensure a daily supply of 1-2 mg of iron to the body.
Because the absorption of iron is limited and depends on many factors, the loss of significant amounts of iron is difficult to recover, and it takes a long time to replace.
The cause of blood loss is often the digestive canal (ulcer, cancer, erosive gastritis, hemorrhoids, rectum cracks). People who suffer from this type of anemia may complain of weakness, dizziness, tinnitus, palpitations, and shortness of breath during exercise, the tendency to faint, frostbite, lack of sleep, nervous, irritable — also muscle weakness.
People with iron deficiency anemia often complain of decreased appetite. Characteristic is the development of atrophic processes in the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach.
Discuss to your doctor if you have risk factors for anemia.
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